Monday, May 2, 2011

Old Testament Abortion. Culpable Killing or Not: Western Christian Context


The Old Testament Texts on Abortion
Kill, Murder, When or if Soul arrives, or None of the Above

Abortion Decision Tree:
Premature birth of a non-breathing entity.
What does the Old Testament say about how that can happen, and what happens next.


We find no Old Testament Biblical text culpability for any intentional act to dislodge an In Utero. It must have been the woman's business, and she was left to her choices.  Here, we look up translation sites;  transliteration sites;  comparison sites; on the topics of abortion, kill, murder, and soul, and life.  Not a word other than description of the result of a dead entity in the womb. Read the texts here for yourself, see the words, their usage.



Start the process of looking up for yourself how words in the OT are or are not related to kill, or murder, or soul, or life, in their original settings, to abortion issues; before later ideology.  Clue:  Nephesh, breath, as in breath of life.  Important to personhood, see ://www.religioustolerance.org/abo_biblh.htm

Blue Letter Bible, Strong's Lexicon.  What applies to in utero? Start your own research.

Type in "kill" at the Blue Letter Bible site, to start. Find all the places "kill" is used.

See the numbers that appear at each given example of a variation on "kill" like 5221 or 5315 or 5309, for example.  Is there any usage in the Old Testament that applies that word to an in utero situation, so as to produce a crime, or anything at all; even if intentional. Is the only usage a descriptive one, but not moral.
  • Check other ancient cultures. Some systems may not address a topic at all, and another may refer to it as property, not morals. In our day, see how views of abortion as turf or morals change with the politics of the day.  
  • And if the religious belief says that the individual has the right to enforce the religious law, as may be the case in Islam, perhaps not (find out), then religion and government become even more closely intertwined, see ranges of the concept at  Ishim.net, Abortion in the Islamic-Ottoman Legal Systems. 
  • If there is no Biblical firm basis for intervening in abortion at all, then legislators are deprived of justifying their prohibition on moral grounds if they cited the Bible. It isn't there. 
  • That means any law must have a "rational basis" -- Rational basis, scrutiny of legislation.  That is a reach.  Are we so depleted in population because some women get abortions, that the government has to step in, rationally? Really?  Or do we leave individual moral decisions, agonizing as they are,made by deeply moral people (women are as moral as men, or the opposite), to those people to burn later or not, as conservatives seek to protect them from. 
  • A cultural issue, to be sure, deciding who decides (power) in the guise of religion.

Steps to analysis.

Looking at parallel translation sites, start spotting who has an agenda that affects the meaning of the translation.  Who did original translating; who piggy-backs on translations of others, and then picks and chooses how to phrase it themselves. Our "Bible" is a hydra.
.
Then ask:  If ideology derives from a collection of opinions over time combined with a sense of politics and power enabling one group to take charge, and those opinions derive from a set of recurrent facts, should not the ideology change if the facts change?  Does that happen.


Culpable killing or not?

When original religious texts are silent, then the issue is not originally religious, but was, and probably should be, culturally defined and dealt with as the culture saw fit, including to ignore completely. Because something is legal does not mean it will be abused.

 Conclusion so far --

Abortion is descriptive but not an Old Testament (or New Testament) moral Biblical issue.

  • Whatever the women were doing was not a problem. Some other cultures inflicted punishment for interference with the man's property right, but no moral issue was imposed.  See FN 1.  
  • It was later ideology that superimposed an otherwise "moral" component on the happenings that had the predictable result of reinforcing the man's right to intervene in ways the Transliterations do not support.  Follow? The colonization process, apparently.  How better to ensure that the woman would be subjugated, especially after an egalitarian attitude of the founder, than to invade this arena.
  • Doctrinal "translations" further the doctrines of the institution. To us, that need to reinforce an institution's dogma makes it an untrustworthy translation, not a trustworthy one, because of the driving agenda on word choice, addition and omission. Bertrand Russell would not buy that process. should we? Vet beliefs.  The Trustworthy Belief; the Untrustworthy Belief. Bertrand Russell

See also New Testament Abortion; and how the doctrine went its own way after, at Early Church Permitted Abortion in Some Cases, Irish Examiner 10/7/2001 

I.    Overview -

A.   Human intervention into what some see as original "inspiration".

Do meanings and usage of original texts become so changed over time for doctrinal purposes, that they no longer reflect "The Bible" as written.

B.   How does a topic unimportant to The Bible become a rallying cry later for culture?  Because culture supersedes original text. And culture is politics, not theology.

As to abortion in particular, what grounds the idea of Biblical prohibition.  On what ground does doctrine claim a Biblical ground for prohibition, where 1) there is no reference to a moral component to the causes of premature birth of a then-dead entity; and 2) where soul NPHSH originates with breath-incoming; and 3) soul and life are associated definitively with breath and and breath with "life", and 4) no word for "kill" is used in reference to the entity not breathing. Governments can enact their own policy, but not claim it is Biblical, is that so?

II.   Research tools - 

III.   Texts and Usage
Overview
A.  Words for "Abortion;"   "Premature Birth"
B.  Words for "Kill" -- are there any that related to in utero (no)
1.   Murder
2.   Execute - an execution, death pursuant to a judgment, governmental function
3.   Sacrifice, animal, human
4.   Animal slaughter for food
5.   Battle and people slaughter, smite

C.  Role and meaning of "Soul" (is there any concept other than soul with life and breath? no)
1.  When soul enters
2.  Concomitant meaning with breath, the breathing entity, life as breathing

IV.  Vetting and Discussion

V.  Conclusion


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III  Texts and Usage Expanded

A.  Words for abortion;  
for more on the ancient world, see FN 1 on topic.

1.  Usage:  Find premature birth, miscarriage, untimely birth.  Strong's numbered words:
  • 5308 = Nephal, Aramaic root, corresponding to nephel.  Short meaning:  "down" -- leave out the middle box, and see just the three forms in the Aramaic rootנָ֫פֶל  
  • 5309 = Nephel, miscarriage, נָ֫פֶל
2.  Meanings:  From "something fallen" , abortion, Hebrew "naphal"   So:  Hebrew usage seems consistent, absence of value judgments, descriptive, no identification with "kill".

3.  Do go to the Blue Letter Bible for a fast look at all the times a word is used, and how, and the Strong's number, see Blue Letter Bible, key in any word, get Strong's Number, examples
Strong's H5308
4.  Nephel. 
 Parallel Hebrew Old Testament nphl
 כנפל
is this the older Paleo Hebrew?  Not sure.

5.  There is no specific other word for "abortion" - try a search at Blue Letter Bible, search for "abortion" KJV.
  • However, there is a description of leprosy producing an appearance as one born who was dead in the womb, in Numbers: 
Setting:  The Wilderness with Moses. Miriam has been struck with leprosy for rousing people along with Aaron, who was not punished, against Moses for marrying an Ethiopian wife; she and Aaron are also jealous of God's favoring Moses.  Aaron pleads with God to lift the punishment of leprosy on Miriam:

The transliteration: Scripture4all, Numbers 12:12, one being dead from the womb

Aaron's pleading:                             In the phonetic:
must-not be .................................. al
please .......................................... -na
she-shall-be .................................. thei
as-the-one-being-dead .................... k-mth
which .......................................... ashr
in-to-come-forth-of-him ................ b-tzath-u
from-womb-of ............................. m-urchm
mother-of-him .............................. am-u
and-he-is-being-devoured .............. u-iakl
half-of ......................................... chtzi
flesh-of-him ................................. bshr-u

 Aaron pleads with God to lift the punishment of leprosy on Miriam:

"must-not be     please     she-shall-be     as-the-one-being-dead     which    in-to-come-forth-of-him    from-womb-of     mother-of-him      and-he-is-being-devoured      half-of      flesh-of-him"
Scripture4all, Hebrew Interlinear, Numbers 12:12

Moses also pleads, and the Lord agrees and banishes Miriam for 7 days, and then she can come back. Leprosy gone. How about Aaron?  Nothing happened to him. Is it possible to see Moses and Miriam and Aaron and the Lady in texts with a drop of humor as we look at ourselves and the ancients?  If not, don't click.

6.  Keep this description in mind in reading Paul's description of himself as an abortion in the New Testament: New Testament on Abortion: Paul   He says that Jesus appeared to him as an abortion (not Jesus, Paul) in the time when Paul as Saul was chasing (his word) Christians; in that Paul as Saul was so incomplete, so unworthy, so undeserving of the name of apostle, because he was an abortion, inferior to the other real apostles, who had been there, were completed.  He was as an abortion is undeserving of the name of child. An abortion is not a child. FN 3

7.   Is this so?

Abortion in the Old Testament is a premature birth, an abortion, is an event without judgment, the product of it not a person not even deserving of a name, just something that happens, no issue of causation found to be an issue, not in anybody's jurisdiction at all.  No issue is raised as to culpability in intentionally bringing it about, if and when that happened.

8.  Check other occurrences: 

"Untimely birth"  "Untimely birth" Blue Letter Bible concordance, OT Hebrew
There find 3 uses
  • Job 3:16, "Or as an hidden untimely birth I had not been; as infants never saw light." At Parallel Hebrew Old Testament, find also Job 3:16  - The Latin Vulgate says "abortium absconditum" (that would be Jerome using "abortium"); and then the others follow suit with "untimely birth" and infants who have not seen the light
    • a.  Job 3:16 at Scripture4all
      au.......................or
      k-nphl.................as-abortion  NPHL --
      tmun...................being buried
      la........................not
      aeie.....................I-was
      k-ollim................as-unweaned
      la-rau..................not they-saw
      aur......................light

      "Or as an hidden, untimely birth I had not been: as infants never saw light."  Scripture4all Hebrew transliteration Job 3:16 "nphl"   So, there is the idea of an abortion as never seeing light, not a matter of breathing.  But still no issue of how that came about. Check other sites, Scripture4all, Index, Hebrew Online Interlinear Bible
       
  • Psalm 58:8, "As a snail melteth let pass away the untimely birth of a woman, they may not see the sun."
  • Ecclesiastes 6:3. "If a man beget an hundred and live many years so that the days of his years be many, and his soul be not filled with good, and also he have no burial, I say an untimely birth is better than he.
 Still no value judgments, no rules, just a neutral description of an event.  Check at 5308, 5309, 53 at Biblos, Bible and Library Search, Strongs, 'Untimely birth"

Abortion so far in the Old Testament is a descriptive vehicle, nonjudgmental, some see the sun, some don't, better not to be born than than the soul not be filled with good, routine passings away. This is a state of mind or being that is once done, over and done with.  Not a big deal.  Nobody differentiates on how this came about, this untimely birth.  Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for '"untimely" AND "birth"' in the HNV". Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 29 Apr 2011. Blueletterbible.org/search/translationResults.cfm?Criteria=untimely+birth 
  ..............................................................................


B.  Words for "Kill":  Murder



1.   Murder
Parallel Hebrew Old Testament Bible in Basic English Ex.20:13
Thou shalt not kill.

 a.  Paleo Hebrew. 


.    


b.  Hebrew
Strong's 7523

Premeditated, or accidental (both in same meaning?), avenger, assassin,  intentional slayer. murder,
Thou shalt not murder, Thou shalt not kill:

murder     not






לא תרצח׃


The general term: murder for kill, assassination, foul play . Do we have the letters right?

Strong's H7523
רָצַח

.......................................

See also listed, roughly, as variations on the circumstances of "kill" these Strong's numbered words
 
2026 (smite, slay),

2873 (sacrifice, or kill after stealing),

4191 (an execution), "Do not put anyone to death without cause." 
  • This is the version of "kill" apparently given in the Bible in Basic English, instead of "Do not kill" or "Do not murder", this being the 9th of the English versions in the Parallel Hebrew Old Testament site. See FN 2

5221 (kill as punishment, smiting, casting judgment) - or this could be the sense of the Bible in Basic English.  The point is that the change in wording in Bible in Basic English makes meaning murkier. 

5315 (refers to nephesh, killing breath, breath of life), Nephesh, NPHSH,  Soul (breath of life brings the soul, Gen 2:7 - no other Biblical reference to an "ensoulment" that we can findl)(note all creatures that breathe have a soul, Gen 1:21 ff)
 נֶפֶשׁ


7819 (animal or human sacrifice)







.......................................................................................................

c.  Latin

Non occidere (Thou shalt not murder)

..................................................................................


C.  Role and meaning of "Soul"

1.  When soul enters
2.  Concomitant with breath, the breathing entity

IV.  Conclusion

You don't have to know Hebrew -- just get familiar with what the forms look like so you can recognize them elsewhere.


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IV.  Discussion:  
Vetting "Kill"
Vetting "Murder"
Strong's 7523 (premeditated or accidental,

These meanings all relate to a breathing entity at the time of the death. We see no reference to acts of one who brought that about intentionally. There were obviously abortifacients at Creation -  they are with us now, see some at Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants, Abortificients and other Biblical Vegetation  Abortifacient vegetation was created, and so is good?  That is logical, and not refuted anywhere.

Ask, as part of logic, how did Even manage to have two children, then let them grow to adulthood; and only when one was killed, just have another, Seth.  She knew what to do. Is that so?  In India, for example, knowledge of abortifacients is used:  see Journal of Phytology, Tribes, India

Women were killed in the Christian West rather than let them assist in aborting, or causing their own abortions, see The Burning Times.

Back to the Bible, there were miscellaneous laws, affecting pregnancy:  Not a moral issue, but a property one, Exodus 21:22-25 or so; and look up the Code of Hammurabi, -- we see nothing about abortion at all.

"If man who are fighting hit a pregnant woman and she gives birth prematurely but there is no serious injury, the offender must be fined whatever the woman's husband demands and the court allows. But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise."  Exodus 21:22-25



1.  Strong's numbers for kill- Index site
  • 5723 in Strong's.  H5723.  There are many, many subheadings and uses of "kill"
See Blue Letter Bible Lexicon Strong's 5723, "Kill"
רָצַח

Scroll down to the listed examples from the books of the OT.

Find "Kill" in 47 entries, and we will just list each once:  as manslayer; slayer; murderer; whether accidental or intentional (each with its own consequence for the slayer), each relates to the kill of one already born and out there. There is no example, nothing about the unborn.

No "kill"  applies so as to give rise to a consequence. Thayer there:  adds "act the homicide".  Still no reference to killing a life form in the womb.  Look up the specific words for "kill" using the Strong's numbering system to keep them straight

See BLB (Blue Letter Bible) "Kill"
....................................................................
  • 2026 - as in God will kill you if you do thus and such.
Kill, smite out of hand, and includes "niphal" to be killed; not just private homicide, but also killing in war and any slaying
הָרַג

..........................................................
  • 2873 -- kill a sheep after stealing it
Slaughter or butcher, kill ruthlessly
טָבַח
.................
    • 4191 -- There is the "kill" as an "execution" --
    To kill, dispatch, have one executed; but also, the dead, die as penalty, die prematurely, perish as a nation.  This is the execution term erroneously used, it appears, in the Bible in Basic English where putting someone to death is referred to, see FN 2

    Gen 2:17, 3:3, 3:4--eat of Tree of Knowledge, you will surely die #4191; eat fruit of the tree in the midst of the garden (how is anyone to know where that is?) you will surely die #4191; serpent says you will not die #4191; many reference to the years people lived and then they died #4191, Genesis 18:25, slay #4191 the righteous with the wicked, and on to "dead man" #4191, and bury the dead #4191

    מוּת


    .................................................
    • 5221 -- lest anyone fine Cain and kill him.  Also, Reuben said not to kill 5221 Joseph.  The sense of smite, punish, send judgment upon. There is a second meaning for "kill" and that is given in the Strong's as 5315, below.  This is "nakah" -- words meaning destroy

    Smite, cast judgment upon, has element of hurting, beat, capture, wound, take a blow

    נָכָה
     ...........................................................

    Now see this usage:  a killing using "nephesh"  breath of life

    It appears that killing is only killing when it kills breath, breath of life, life is breath, etc.  That makes sense in the context of Old Testament abortion.  Even an intentional dislodging is not a killing because there was no breath. Is that so?
    • 5315 - Reuben also said not to kill 5315  Joseph and this second Strong's number is given.  This is the "nephesh" word --  breath of life -- do not kill the breath of life -- fair use sampling from definitions . Need to learn more about nephesh. The idea seems to be that relevant life is life with breath.
    1) soul, self, life, creature, person, appetite, mind, living being, desire, emotion, passion
    a) that which breathes, the breathing substance or being, soul, the inner being of man
    b) living being
    c) living being (with life in the blood)
    d) the man himself, self, person or individual
    e) seat of the appetites
    f) seat of emotions and passions
    g) activity of mind
    1) dubious
    h) activity of the will
    1) dubious
    i) activity of the character
    1) dubious
     נֶפֶשׁ


      .....................................................................
    • 7819 -- kill the bullock before the Lord, kill the sacrificial animal, beast for food, human sacrifice
     שָׁחַט

     ..............................................................
     "la thrtzch"

    Check that word:  goes back to all the Strong's numbers that include murder, and all relate to living breathing beings.  No reference to anything in utero.  There is a new Strong's number given in the murders, number 5408, see Blue Letter Bible Lexicon G5408 murder.  Its examples also are living breathing beings already out there.

    Non occides.   Fall, fall down, perish, die, be slain, be ruined, done for, decline, end, occido, occidered, kill, murder slaughter, slay,
    לא תרצח׃
    L'a ThUrTShCh.

    Stars 21 Latin to English translation, non occides

     ...............................................................

    Other laws later:  homicide depended on if the child had breathed, see Charles V, Germanic emperor in 1555; in 1667 Schwammerdamm in Germany -- see if the lungs float.  If they do, it breathed and the death is a homicide. Research at two volumes by someone named Beck, have to find the site - may be JSTOR.  These were long after dogma and doctrine took over original texts and fitted the fittings to the culture of who decides what and why and where. A search for the history of abortion laws has a great deal, but we see nothing to change the view of the original texts.


    V. CONCLUSION SO FAR

    Research never ends.
    Research never persuades anyone, but may stimulate thinking.

    Prohibitions on intentionally terminating a pregnancy appear to be, if they appear at all in law, to be property oriented, clinching the man's right to his property, and later laws seem focused more on preventing the woman from deciding, rather than the life in utero as equal to or of more value than the hostess.  The property issue makes abortion not a moral idea of killing a qualified "life" against a religious code.  You cause the abortion, you pay the man a fine.

    For a religious group today to say that the Bible in its texts prohibits intentional abortion, is simply not supported by texts.  The rest is extrapolation that some may believe is inspired, and many others do not and do not have to.

    So, Let a government do as it likes, for its own reasons.  But the argument that this is founded in religion, in "Christianity" -- except as later institutional people, that some see as authoritative, say so-- does not root it in text.
    What is Kill, Murder, Does it apply to abortion--  Old Testament.  Special reference, 10 Commandments Exodus 20:13,  Deut.5:17.  That takes examination of actual texts, not paraphrasing and repeating earlier errors.


    What next?

    • In any research, which sites have an agenda; or paraphrase existing selected "translations" for their own purpose. Paraphrase is not translation, mere subjective editing.  
    • We propose the Bible in Basic English is such a paraphrase, in effect. Its purported simplification, reduction to use of something less than a thousand words, to make it more readable for the illiterate. Like a missionary tool. This simplification becomes simplistic and misleading, and even plain wrong in distorting the Hebrew. What accountability is there in Bibles. 
    • Perhaps we could require truth in labeling --  Paraphrase and editorializing from selected English sources to support a doctrine; Transliteration from original Hebrew, Translation from original Hebrew, Translation from Latin, etc. See discussion.
    Related issue:  sacredness of human life, or is it?  Look at the din.  In utero:  Is there Life or Existence there.  "Biblical" life; or existence. Incipience. Does breath make the difference. Or mere movement.  Soul. Nphsh.  Who thinks what is sacred? Do texts really support that, or is it ideology later? Kill.  Murder. Dislodge. Intent. Culpable or no impact. Property of the man; or right of the woman; or the entity. Does life of one supersede the mere existence of another, so that choosing life is to choose the one with "life" - the breathing one; over the one with "existence" and "movement" -- but timing -- it should count, should it not? Don't delay, girl, is that Roe?

    Moral differences, or semantics. What is life, o guru. What is existence.  If it is a continuum, does it matter.  Does that give unfair advantage to the one in continuo, over the fully formed one.  Why? See the discussion continue at  New Testament Abortion

    What Does Your Bible Say?  This is not a religious site; this is text exploration. If you choose to adopt someone's interpretation or inspiration as authority, your choice. But mere belief in something inculcated or chosen is not enough. Are we obligated as fully human beings to weigh our choices:  Is this belief trustworthy; or is it not trustworthy.  See The Trustworthy Belief; the Untrustworthy Belief. Bertrand Russell
     For Western Christian culture-religion, what applies where, especially in the area of abortion. See overview of some interpretations at Texts, Pentateuch
    ..............................................................




    FN 1.  Abortion in the ancient world.

    Here is a fast BBC overview: BBC, Ethics, Abortion, Legal History.

    Overall,  property matter, not moral or supposed sanctity of life. Assyria seems to have been most specific, google book Wilfred G. Lambert's Wisdom, Gods and Literature: Studies in Assyriology at 12.

    For some, timing is important, "quickening" - but we fine nothing as to "soul" as a reason against abortion. The old Hippocratic oath prohibited a physician from providing a pessary for abortion purposes, see Arizona (!) put together its history showing abortion historically is bad at Abortion and the Law: Arizona compilation.

    However, there were many, many means of abortion: simple ergot from grain worked.  Hebrews had lots of grain.

    Women aren't stupid.

    See a global look by Autumn Stanley at google book Mothers and Daughters of Invention at 258, ex. Was "soul" a smokescreen doctrine, allowing a moral argument about sacred human life, and not any abuse of abortion knowledge by women (nobody cared in the OT so the issue was clearly hers) that finally enabled institutions to take over the disposition of the issue from the woman and her circumstances.

    With doctrines of "ensoulment" and "sacred", the institution could force continuations of pregnancies among Christians to produce more Christians for the institution, the new Father.  That picked up right where the other patriarchal cultures left off, a lateral pirhouette into religion, as the woman was to produce more children for the newly ordained fathers there.  That has to be another topic -- The Christian Era. Do texts from the OT and the NT support what later grew like Topsy in the followers of Paul.

    .........................................................................

    FN 2.

    Bible in Basic English:  This source, if used for anything more than a way to teach English, has great potential for abuse; editors today should relook at the wording. The Orthological Institute, cited as part of this version's credentials, is only a group organized to teach basic English - the method, limit the vocabulary and present works in that vocabulary, a system geared to teaching English  but not reliable for theology or meanings of religious works. See Basic English dot org.

    See the version of the Commandment not to murder, even suggesting you as an individual can execute people, put people to death (the phrase used for governmental judgment actions)  as long as you think you have cause.  This is the Second Amendment Remedies heaven. Go ahead. Get 'em in the crosshairs if you disagree politically.

    This "authority" saying putting to death is fine if you have a cause, contains none of the parameters of a prohibition on "murder". 

    We are not suggesting that was S.H. Hooke's intent back in the day. But if people believe what they read, as we believe they do when told this is "authority", this says "Bible" so it must be what the "Bible" says.  A powerful propaganda tool. Tilt the text and teach that.

    Putting someone to death does not convey the same criminal intent and circumstance as "murder". Kill means many things in Hebrew, occurs in many contexts; this usage, putting someone to death, refers to the idea to an execution.  Justified. Putting someone to death. A Dr. Tiller. A  legislator with differing views. Okay as long as there is "cause". Does the killer decide if there is cause? 

    • Go to current events. How can or has this idea, this playing fast and loose with meaning, contributed to the vigilante mindset, the lone wolf setting things right. The Bible in Basic English is old, uses a limited number of words, say a thousand words -- a beginner vocabulary in learning English -- and was intended only to make reading Bible ideas easier for the illiterate, see 1965 Intro, Bible in Basic English .  It was "made from" the Hebrew and Greek, and does not even purport to be a translation from those.  It sounds like this cake has 1/4 tsp cinnamon and so is "made from" cinnamon. Did the editor, S. H. Hooke 1874-1968 (biography) do any more than paraphrase from his chosen ideology-culture supporting English sources of like mindsets.  We see no evidence of researching back to meaning.  Yet, with its missionary purpose, how much has this version shaped the doctrinal slants fostered by it. When do editions stop being "The Bible".
    Can a Dr. Tiller be killed, executed, because someone believed there was "cause?" See Trial of an Abortion Vigilante This is dangerous, is that so?  See Slate, Defining Murder Down.  Who is behind the Bible in Basic English anyway? Can any of us put out a "translation" and hope somebody will buy it?  Who qualifies the Bible on their own. Find Bible in Basic English sales site.  This says the version is to enable anybody to 'understand' the Bible.  But what if the site ignores meanings and adds to text at will, to serve its own ends, and let people decide their own "cause"?  Is that propaganda and spin and dogma, or information? Go to philosopher, analyst, social critic Bertrand Russell:  it is not enough to have a belief.  It must be a trustworthy belief, not an untrustworthy one.  Bertrand Russell. The Service of Atheists, Agnostics

    ............................................................

    FN 3
    Preview:  Vetting Abortion in the New Testament - Greek -- 
    ektrOma
    Strong's 1626
    See New Testament Abortion - Paul

     By way of summary, what word corresponds to the Hebrew "nphl" for abortion or untimely birth, but  in the Greek (Jerome was the first to translate the New Testament canon into Greek, we understand).  Find at Biblos concordance (Strong's set out easier to find the English and go from there) at Biblos Search Strongs "untimely birth"

    Find Strong's number 1626 Ektroma, strictly "a lifeless abortion" Where used? Once. 
    Look fast at Scripture4all (keep your windows open) for the context.  That is the site where the entire chapter will be given, with the traditional translation down the right side.  This is where Paul is laying out all the evidence, verse after verse, for appearances of Jesus after rising, and says he appeared to him, Paul, also (what??) (If all that had happened, wouldn't it be in MatthewMarkLukeJohn? Is it just his word??)

    "LAST  YET  OF-ALL    AS-EVEN-IF  to-THE    abortion   He WAS-VIEWED   AND-to-ME.
    Abortion as the ektrOmati, premature birth.

    We are not focusing on the merits of Paul's claims, however, just looking at the usage.  Abortion is again a neutral, descriptive concept.  An abortion is a worthless entity. And that 's the way it is used.

    Now to Blue Letter Bible on Strong's 1626: Blue Letter Bible Strong's Lexicon 1626

    THAYER:  His definitions and exegesis focus on meanings, not ideology. Paul likens himself to an abortion in the sense that he is inferior to the other apostles in the same way that an immature birth falls short compared to a mature one and "is no more worthy of the name of an apostle as an abortion is of the name of a child." 

    Thayer's refers to some of the the abortion sites above, and adds Numbers 12:12 (Go to Scripture4all for the context at Scripture4all, Numbers 12:12.

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